Do All Animals Have Sex?

bd

As discussed in the Biology and Society section, some species can reproduce via both sexual and asexual routes. But although some animal species can also reproduce asexually, very few animals reproduce only asexually. In fact, evolutionary biologists have traditionally considered asexual reproduction an evolutionary dead end (for reasons we’ll discuss in the Evolution Connection section at the end of the chapter). To investigate a case where asexual reproduction seemed to be the norm, researchers from Harvard University studied a group of animals called bdelloid rotifers Picture given on top . This class of nearly microscopic freshwater invertebrates includes more than 300 known species.Despite hundreds of years of observations , no one had ever found bdelloid rotifer males or evidence of sexual reproduction. But the possibility remained that bdelloids had sex very infrequently or that the males were impossible to recognize by appearance. Thus, the Harvard research team posed the question , Does this entire class of animals reproduce solely by asexual means?

The researchers formed the hypothesis that bdelloid rotifers have indeed thrived for millions of years despite a lack of sexual reproduction. But how to test it? In most species, the two versions of a gene in a pair of homologous chromosomes are very similar due to the constant trading of genes during sexual reproduction. If a species has survived without sex for millions of years, the researchers reasoned, then changes in the DNA sequences of homologous genes should accumulate independently, and the two versions of the genes should have significantly diverged from each other over time. This led to the prediction that bdelloid rotifers would display much more variation in their pairs of homologous genes than most organisms. In a simple but elegant experiment , the researchers compared the sequences of a particular gene in bdelloid and non-bdelloid rotifers. Their results were striking.

Among non-bdelloid rotifers that reproduce sexually,the two homologous versions of the gene were nearly identical, differing by only 0.5% on average. In contrast, the two versions of the same gene in bdelloid rotifers differed by 3.5–54%. These data provided strong evidence that bdelloid rotifers have evolved for millions of years without any sexual reproduction.

Source- Book by Campbell biology

Advertisements

One thought on “Do All Animals Have Sex?

  1. Hello Web Admin, I noticed that your On-Page SEO is is missing a few factors, for one you do not use all three H tags in your post, also I notice that you are not using bold or italics properly in your SEO optimization. On-Page SEO means more now than ever since the new Google update: Panda. No longer are backlinks and simply pinging or sending out a RSS feed the key to getting Google PageRank or Alexa Rankings, You now NEED On-Page SEO. So what is good On-Page SEO?First your keyword must appear in the title.Then it must appear in the URL.You have to optimize your keyword and make sure that it has a nice keyword density of 3-5% in your article with relevant LSI (Latent Semantic Indexing). Then you should spread all H1,H2,H3 tags in your article.Your Keyword should appear in your first paragraph and in the last sentence of the page. You should have relevant usage of Bold and italics of your keyword.There should be one internal link to a page on your blog and you should have one image with an alt tag that has your keyword….wait there’s even more Now what if i told you there was a simple WordPress plugin that does all the On-Page SEO, and automatically for you? That’s right AUTOMATICALLY, just watch this 4minute video for more information at. Seo Plugin

    Like

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s